poniedziałek, 22 kwietnia 2019

Alphabet

This language uses its own alphabetical writing, written from left to right.

 Chart with International Phonetic alphabet.
Lord's Prayer.

niedziela, 21 kwietnia 2019

Some derivative trees, part IV.

Tree for noun caán 'house, home, family' (derived nouns)

  • caanrá 'inmate';
  • caanián 'house master, pater familias';
  • caánus 'home place';
  • caantsá 'house';
  • caanní 'little house, little family';
  • caánaab 'big house, big family';
  • caantón 'many houses, many families';
  • maacaán 'all/entire house or family';
  • cancaán 'former house, ruine';
  • ieecaán 'future house';
  • caánasti 'domestic animal';
  • caánite 'group similar to family, but with unrelated members';
  • caanúm 'area with houses, estate';
  • caaníne 'part of house, chamber';

Tree for noun dákha 'edge' (derived nouns)

  • dákhus 'edge of a place';
  • dakhaní 'little edge';
  • dákhaab 'big edge';
  • maadákha 'all/entire edge';
  • candákha 'former edge';
  • ieedákha 'future edge';
  • dakhúm 'border';
    • dakhumní 'little border';
    • dakhúmaab 'big border';
    • maadakhúm 'all/entire border';
    • dakhumíne 'part of border';
    • candakhúm 'former border';
    • ieedakhúm 'future border';
  • dakháine 'part of edge';

Tree for noun bóste 'ring' (derived nouns)

  • bosterá 'someone who makes rings';
  • bostiián 'possessor of ring';
  • bóstus 'ring, circle (as a place)'
  • bostetsá 'box for rings';
  • bóstasti 'annelid';
  • bóstite 'object in the shape of ring';
  • bostení 'little ring';
  • bóstaab 'big ring';
  • bostetón 'many rings';
  • maabóste 'all/entire ring';
  • béboste 'true ring';
  • bostúm 'land of rings';
  • bostíne 'part of ring';

Tree for noun hatsé 'bone' (derived nouns)

  • hatséus 'place of bones';
  • hatsení 'little bone';
  • hatseéb 'big bone';
  • hatsetón 'skeleton';
  • hatselúa 'few bones';
  • maahatsé 'entire bone';
  • hatseúm 'cemetary';
  • hatséine 'piece of bone';

Tree for noun thar 'hand' (derived nouns)

  • thárma 'glove';
  • thartaamé 'sparing';
  • thárnima 'towel';
  • tharní 'little hand';
  • tháraab 'big hand';
  • thartón 'many hands';
  • maathár 'all/entire hand';
  • tharíne 'part of hand';

Tree for noun saadé 'star' (derived nouns)

  • saadé 'star';
  • saaderá 'astrologer';
  • saadení 'little star';
  • saadeéb 'big star';
  • saadetón 'night sky';
  • saadelúa 'constellation';
  • saadétṣa 'meteorite';

Tree for noun suúr 'milk' (derived nouns)

  • surrá 'milkman';
  • suurní 'little milk, little portion of milk';
  • suúraab 'big milk';
  • suúrus 'place with milk';
  • suurtsá 'container for milk';
  • suúrma 'milk soup';
  • maasuúr 'all, entire milk';
  • sésuur 'pure milk';
  • suúrite 'something similar to milk';
  • suurúm 'land of milk';
  • suuríne 'portion of milk';

Tree for verb lókoh 'to become high' (derived nouns)

  • lokalé 'height';
  • lokián 'high person';
  • lokáua 'someone from High Tribe';
  • lókus 'high place';
  • lokúm 'highland';

Tree for verb sétah 'to stand' (derived nouns)

  • sétti 'state, status';
  • sétus 'layover';
  • sétta 'wealth';
    • settaní 'little wealth';
    • séttaab 'big wealth';
    • sésetta 'true wealth';
  • sédgata 'stability';
    • sedgatúm 'stabilized area';
    • sésedgata 'true stability';
  • sédlata 'localization';

środa, 17 kwietnia 2019

Some derivative trees, part III.

Tree for verb gúdah 'to give' (derived nouns)

  • gudrá 'giver';
    • gudralé 'donation';
  • gúdma 'gift';
    • gudmaní 'little gift';
    • gúdmaab 'big gift';
    • gégudma 'true gift';
    • gúdmaite 'false gift';
    • cangúdma 'former gift';
    • ieegúdma 'future gift;
    • gudmatón 'many gifts';
  • gútta 'portion';
    • guttáine 'part of portion';
  • gútti 'loyalty';
  • gúdus 'giving place';
  • gútkhama 'increase';
  • gúttaamni 'forgiving';
  • gúnnani 'adding';
    • gúnnima 'tax';
      • gúnnimaini 'taxation';
      • gunnimáine 'part of tax';
    • gunné 'add';
      • gunnéine 'part of add';
  • gútṣtṣani 'giving back, retturning, emission';
    • gutṣtṣásse 'emitted substantion';
  • gúdliini 'spending, issuing';
    • gúdliima 'issue';
  • guthamé 'reward, prize';
    • guthameéb 'grand prize';
    • guthamení 'little prize';
    • guthaméine 'part of prize';
  • gútsoma 'image, imitation';
  • gútsomaini 'imagination';
    • gutsomairá 'imaginator';

Tree for verb bóḥah 'to speak' (derived nouns)

  • boḥrá 'speaker';
  • boḥát 'speech';
  • bóḥasti 'speaking being';
  • bóḥus 'rostrum';
  • boḥé 'thing';
    • boḥeéb 'large thing';
    • boḥení 'little thing';
    • bóḥḥa 'subject';
  • boḥtaamé 'refusal, denial, rejection';
  • boḥásse 'sentence';
    • boḥassetón 'many sentences, statement';
  • bóḥṣemní 'orating';
    • boḥṣemrá 'orator';
    • boḥṣemé 'oration';
  • bóḥłani 'dictating';
    • bohłará 'dictator';
  • boḥtaamé 'pronounciation';
  • bóḥsoma 'collusion, conspiracy';
  • bóḥḥama 'pact, contract';
  • bóḥliima 'persuasion, incitement, instigation';
  • bóhnima 'slander, libel, rumor'

Tree for verb sýdzah 'to sit' (derived nouns)

  • sýdzus 'seat';
  • sytṣtṣemé 'transfer';
  • sýtskhaama 'sitting, meeting';
  • sýdlus 'orchard';
    • sydlusián 'orchardman';
  • sýdlasti 'seedling';

Tree for verb raájah 'to rule' (derived nouns)

  • raajrá 'ruler';
    • raajráiti 'imperiousness';
  • raajián 'someone who has ruling power, administrator';
  • raájus 'seat of rule, capital';
  • raajúm 'ruled area';
  • raájnisoma 'embassy';
    • raajnisomará 'ambassador';
  • raachará 'magnate';
    • raacharatón 'magnatery, ruling class';
  • raájni 'subordinated object';
    • raajnirá 'subordinated person';
      • raajniralé 'subordination';

Tree for verb łaáiah 'to become white' (derived nouns)

  • łaáiián 'someone who is white, albino';
  • łaáiti 'whiteness';
  • łaáima 'leucoma';
  • łaaié 'glair';
  • łaáiasti 'white animal';
  • łaáius 'white place';
  • łaaiúm 'white area, snow/ice cap';

Tree for verb goh 'to do' (derived nouns)

  • gorá 'worker';
    • goratón 'many workers';
  • góti 'job';
  • góku 'tool';
    • gokúine 'part of tool';
  • góta 'occupation';
  • gósti 'working animal';
  • gónima 'fake, counterfeit, imitation';
    • gonimará 'imitator';
  • gótaamni 'cancellation';
  • goṣemé 'redoing, redo';
  • gothani 'earnings, profit';
  • gółni 'causing, preaching';
    • gółra 'causee, preacher';
    • gółti 'cause';
    • gółḥama 'injunction';

Tree for verb baághah 'to fence' (derived nouns)

  • baaghrá 'fencer';
  • baaghé 'fence';
    • baagheéb 'big fence';
    • baaghení 'little fence';
    • baaghéine 'part of fence, board';
  • baághus 'garden';
  • baaghúm 'city, town';
    • baaghumáua 'burgher, townsman, citizen';
  • baaghṣemé 'partition, compartment';
    • baághṣemus 'partitionned place';

Tree for verb doh 'to see' (derived nouns)

  • dónima 'vision';
    • dónimaab 'great vision';
    • donimaní 'little vision, delusion';
  • dorá 'spectator';
    • doratón 'audience, locale';
  • doát 'view';
    • doattón 'scene';
  • dóus 'view, scenery';
    • dóusaab 'large view';
    • dousní 'little view';
  • dokhaará 'breeder, farmer';
  • dołát 'show, display';
    • dołé 'shown object';

Tree for noun anú 'eye' (derived nouns)

  • anurá 'representative';
    • anuratón 'representation';
      • anuratonní 'little representation';
  • anuián 'someone with big eyes';
  • anuní 'little eye';
  • anuúb 'big eye';
  • anúnius 'eyehole, orbit';
  • anúḥa 'eyelid';

Tree for noun sýle 'mountain' (derived nouns)

  • sylerá 'mountaineer';
    • syleratón 'many mountaineers';
  • syláua 'someone living in mountain';
  • sylní /little mountain, hill';
  • sýleeb 'big/grand mountain';
    • syleeptón 'big/grand mountains' range'
  • syltón 'many mountains, mountain range';
  • syllúa 'few mountains';
  • syleniúm 'area before mountains';
  • syltahé 'hill';
  • sylbecúm 'area between mountains, mountain hollow';

Tree for noun syn 'forest' (derived nouns)

  • synrá 'forester';
  • synáua 'someone living in forest';
  • sýmma 'wood';
  • symní 'little forest';
  • sýnaab 'big forest';
  • synlúa 'few forests';
  • symnisúm 'area near forest';
  • symbecúm 'area between forests';

Tree for noun tshúue 'bird' (derived nouns)

  • tshuurá 'fowler';
  • tshuuián 'possessor of a bird';
  • tshuuní 'little bird';
  • tshúuaab 'big bird';
  • tshuutón 'large troop of birds';
    • maatshuutón 'all birds, birds of all species'
  • tshuulúa 'few birds';
  • tshuus 'aviary';
  • tshuutsá 'birdcage';

Tree for noun naánga 'king' (derived nouns)

  • naángus 'royal house/palace';
  • naángatón 'many kings, royal lineage';
  • ieenaánga 'future king';
  • naángakhaan 'son of king';
  • naángatṣaal 'daughter of king';
  • naangúm 'kingdom';
  • naángani 'subking, viceroy';
  • naangaáke 'someone in role of king (but it is not a true king)';
  • naanganalé 'absence of leadership, interregnum';
  • naanganákhaa 'anti-king';

wtorek, 16 kwietnia 2019

Some derivative trees, part II.

Tree for verb ioh 'to have' (derived nouns)

  • iorá 'possessor';
    • ioraáb 'big possessor';
    • ioraní 'little possessor';
  • ióma 'possessed object';
    • iómaab 'large possessed object';
    • iomaní 'small possessed object';
  • ióta 'possession';
    • iótaab 'large possession';
    • iotaní 'small possession';
  • iotaamé 'lose';

Tree for verb iuútah 'to keep' (derived nouns)

  • iuutrá 'keeper, possessor';
  • iuútnini 'support';
  • iuuttahé 'possessed object, possession';
  • iuútna 'keeping a contract';
  • iuútṣeme 'tribute';
  • iuútsoni 'holding';

Tree for verb ḥádah 'to know' (derived nouns)

  • ḥadará 'someone who knows something';
  • ḥadián 'possessor of a knowledge';
  • ḥadé 'knowledge';
  • canḥadé 'former knowledge';
  • ieeḥadé 'future knowledge';
  • ghuurasḥadé 'knowledge about horses';
  • ḥádliima 'information';
    • ḥadliimará 'informator';
    • ḥadliimaián 'possessor of an information, source of information';
    • ḥádliimaab 'large or very important information';
    • ḥadliimaní 'little or unimportant information';
  • ḥádajni 'cognition, study', acquisition of knowledge;

Tree for verb médzah 'to might' (derived nouns)

  • métsti 'power, might';
    • metstiián 'possessor of power';
    • métstiaab 'great power';
    • metstiní 'little/minor power';
    • mémetsti 'true/pour power';
      • memetstiíne 'fragment of true power';
    • metstiíne 'fragment of a power';
    • maamétsti 'all/entire power, power of god';
    • métsasti 'living, incarnated power';
      • mémetsasti 'true/pour incarnated power';
  • métstahlé 'overcome, overpower';
  • métłti 'help';
    • medlará 'helper';
      • medlaralé 'helpfullness';
      • mémedlará 'true helper';
    • médltiíne 'part of a help';
    • ieemétłti 'future help';
  • méssota 'victory';
    • messorá 'winner';
      • messoraáb 'great winner';
      • messoraní 'little winner';
    • méssotaab 'great victory';
    • messotaní 'little victory';
    • mémessota 'true victory';
    • canméssota 'former victory';
    • ieeméssota 'future victory';
  • metṣtṣemé 'violence';

Tree for verb bétłah 'to bind, to tie' (derived nouns)

  • betłát 'union, relationship';
  • betłáku 'tie, binder';
  • bétłma 'wreath';
  • betłé 'bind';
  • bétłus 'jail, prison';
    • betłusrá 'prisoner';
  • betłúm 'united area, territory of an union';
  • bedlgará 'slave';
    • bedlgarián 'possessor of slave(s);
    • bedlgaráti 'slavery';
    • bedlgarúm 'area of slaves' origin';

Tree for verb moólah 'to drink' (derived nouns)

  • moólra 'drunkard';
  • moólku 'goblet, cup'
  • mooltsá 'bowl';
    • mooltsaáb 'big bowl';
    • mooltsaní 'little bowl';
  • moólma 'drink';
  • moolé 'beer';
    • moolerá 'brewer';
      • moolérus 'brewery';
    • mooletsá 'barrel with beer';
    • mooléine 'drop of beer';

Tree for verb dúh 'to be' (derived nouns)

  • dúra 'human or humanoid being';
    • dédura 'true human being';
  • dúma 'inanimated being, object';
  • dústi 'animate living being';
  • dutsá 'body';
    • dédutsa 'true body';
  • duús 'place';
  • duúm 'area, territory';
    • duumrá 'possessor of an area';
    • duumáua 'local inhabitant';
  • dutahrá 'inhabitant, someone who inhabit a territory';
    • dédutahra 'true inhabitant, autochton';
    • dutahúm 'inhabited territory';
  • duutaamé 'happening';
  • dúnima 'bottom';
    • maadúnima 'all/entire bottom';
  • duṣemé 'travel';
    • duṣemerá 'traveller';
    • dúṣemus 'place of travelling';
    • duṣemúm 'travel destination';
  • dújama 'beginning, start';
    • dujará 'beginner';
    • dújamus 'place of beginning, point of start';
    • candújama 'former beginning, start';
    • ieedújama 'future beginning, future start';
  • dusté ' end';

Tree for verb jah 'to go' (derived nouns)

  • jaát 'walk, gait';
    • jéjaat 'pure/appropriate gait';
  • jáma 'pavenment, sidewalk, footpath';
  • jásoni 'entering';
  • jánini 'approaching, outwitting';
  • jáḥama 'overlap';
  • jákhaani 'coming';
    • jakhaará 'newcomer';
      • jakhaaratón 'large group of newcomers';
    • jákhuus 'place inhabited by newcomers, new settlement';
  • játaamni 'leaving';
  • jápatuni 'preceding';
  • jáchema 'surprise';
  • jaṣemé 'passage, transition';

Tree for verb tálteh 'to fight' (derived nouns)

  • talterá 'fighter';
  • taltáku 'weapon';
    • taltákutón 'armament';
  • táltaab 'battle';
    • táltaabus 'battle field';
  • táltus 'place for fighting';
  • taltúm 'area of fighting'
  • tálteta 'fight';
  • táltetaamti 'security';

Tree for verb hídeh 'to eat' (derived nouns)

  • hídeni 'eating';
  • hiderá 'eater';
  • hideián 'possessor of food';
  • hidáku 'spoon';
  • hídus 'place of eating';
  • hídema 'food';
    • héhidema 'pure (ritual) food';
  • hídesti 'edible being (plant or animal)';
    • maahídesti 'all edible beings';
  • hídeite 'false food';
  • hidéine 'part of food';
  • hidełrá 'feeder';

Tree for verb sagháh 'to think' (derived nouns)

  • saghará 'thinker';
    • sagharáti 'philosophy';
    • sagharatón 'many thinkers, class of thinkers';
  • sagháku 'source of inspiration';
  • saghatsá 'brain';
  • saghásse 'substantion of think, spirit';
  • sagheé 'think'
    • sésaghee 'true/pure think';
      • sesagheení 'true/pure little think';
      • sésagheeb 'true/pure great think';
  • sagháma 'idea';
    • saghamará 'idealist';
      • saghamaratón 'idealism';
    • saghamáine 'part of idea';
    • maasagháma 'all/entire idea';

Singulative and partitive object

Singulative means a single or smaller part of a whole or bigger object (partitive object), formed from a noun with the suffix -íne or -V́ine.
  • muúta 'wheat' → muutáine 'grain of wheat';
  • tólgu 'stone' → tolgúine 'one stone';
  • gylásse 'fire substantion' → gylasséine 'some of fire substantion';
  • hatsé 'bone' → hatséine 'piece of bone';
  • seélo 'army' → seelóine 'soldier';
  • pul 'water' → pulíne 'drop of water';
  • ṣagé 'word' → ṣagéine 'sound character (of letter)';
  • lásdani 'writing' → lasdaníne 'letter';
  • gýl 'fire' → gylíne 'part of fire, flame';
Pulíne tsaanátṣ neekhéḥ-ḥa tłághim-so itłhádnat.
[drop.of.water sky-ABL earth-LOC-on rain-ACC-in FEM-fall-PST-PERF]
[pulíne t͡saːnát͡ʃ neːkʰéx xa t͡ɬáɰim so it͡ɬʰádnat]
The drop of water fell from the sky to the ground during the rain.

Beehíne mer gúdo.
[part.of.bread 1.SG-DAT MASC-give-IMPER]
[beːhíne mer gúdo]
Give me a piece of bread.

Dzála salpáinem bychár igúdnat.
[woman piece.of.apple child-DAT FEM-give-PST-PERF]
[d͡zála salpájnem bɯcʰár igúdnat]
The woman gave the child a piece of apple.

Me doṣéine háicha iuútłah.
[1.SG salt.some yesterday keep-CAUS-INF]
[me doʃéjne hájcʰa júːt͡ɬah]
I got some salt yesterday.

Tolgúine tolgutónaḥ-bece.
[one.stone many.stone-LOC-between]
[tolgúine tolgutónax bece]
One stone among many stones.

Dzighíne dzighitónatṣ inédaanat.
[one.bee many.bee-ABL FEM-fly-PST-PERF]
[d͡ziɰíne d͡ziɰitónat͡ʃ inédaːnat]
One bee flew out of the bee's nest.

Jaanumíned duusḥaráir igúdganat.
[province-PL governor-PL-DAT FEM-give-PASS-PST-PERF]
[ɟaːnumíned duːsxará.ir igúdganat]
Provinces were given to governors.

poniedziałek, 15 kwietnia 2019

Some derivative trees

Tree for verb keétah 'to cut' (derived nouns)

  • keétra 'someone who cut';
  • kéttere 'chord';
    • maakeéttere 'entire chord';
    • keetteréine 'part of chord';
    • keéttereite 'chordal instrument';
  • gerunds:
    • keétni 'cutting (IPF);
    • keétatni 'cutting (PFV);
  • keétti 'bitterness, poignancy';
  • keétku 'knife';
    • keétkuub 'big knife, machete';
      • keetkuubní 'little machete';
      • keetkuuptón 'many machetes';
      • keetkuublúa 'few machetes';
    • keétkuni 'little knife';
    • keetkutón 'many knives';
    • keetkulúa 'few knives';
    • keetkúine 'part of knife';
  • keétus 'plot';
    • keetúmaab 'large plot';
    • keétusaab 'little plot';
    • keetusíne 'part of plot';
  • keetúm 'country';
    • kékeetum 'true country, fatherland';
      • kékeetumaab 'large fatherland';
      • kekeetumní 'little fatherland';
    • keetúmaab 'large country';
    • keetumní 'little country';
    • keetumíne 'part of country';
  • keétma 'cut, incision';
    • keetmaní 'little cut, little incision';

Tree for noun ghuúr 'horse' (derived nouns)

  • ghuúrra 'horseman';
    • ghuurruúm 'land of horsemen, steppe';
    • canghuúrra 'former horseman';
  • ghuurián 'someone who have a horse';
    • ghuuriánaab 'big/great possessor of a horse';
  • ghuurní 'pony';
  • ghuúraab 'big horse';
    • ghuuraabúm 'land of big horse(s)';
  • ghéghuur 'warmblood riding horse';
    • ghéghuurum 'pasture for warmblood riding horses';
  • ghuúrus 'stable, stud';
    • ghuurusrá 'groom, ostler, horse-boy';
  • ghuurúm 'pasture for horses';
  • ghuúrite 'equind, similar to horse';
  • ghuuríne 'part of horse';
  • ghuurasḥadé 'knowledge about horses';
    • ghuurasḥadrá 'horse expert';
  • maaghuúr 'entire horse';
  • ghuurtón 'many horses, horse herd';
    • maaghuurtón 'entire horse herd';
  • ghuurlúa 'few horses';
  • canghuúr 'former horse, horse's skeleton';

Tree for jaán 'lord, master' (derived nouns)

  • jaanát 'majesty';
  • jaanní 'little lord, little master';
  • jaánaab 'grand lord, grand master';
  • jaantón 'many lords, many masters, aristocracy';
  • jaanlúa 'few lords';
  • canjaán 'former lord, former master';
  • ieejaán 'future lord, future master';
  • jéjaan 'true lord, true master';
  • jaánus 'seat of lord, lordship';
    • jaanustón 'many lordships';
  • jaanúm 'state';
    • jaanúmaab 'big state, empire';
      • jéjaanumaab 'true empire';
    • jaanumní 'statelet';
  • jaánta 'control, dominion';
    • jaantará 'controller, dominator';
    • jaantáine 'part of control';

Tree for gýl 'fire' (derived nouns)

  • gýlus 'campfire';
  • gýliku 'flint';
  • gylásse 'fire substantion (petroleum);
    • gylasséine 'some of fire substantion';
  • gýlma 'burned wood';
  • gylní 'little fire, glimmer';
  • gýlaab 'big fire, conflagration';
  • gyltón 'series of fires';
  • gylustón 'large group of campfires';
  • maagýl 'entire fire';
  • gégyl 'pure fire';
  • gylíne 'part of fire, flame';
  • gýlni 'fuel';
  • gýlniso 'stone under campfire';

Tree for saar 'sun' (derived nouns)

  • saarásse 'sunlight, solar substantion';
  • saarní 'little sun';
  • saárite 'sunflower';
    • saaritéine 'sunflower's seed'
  • saaríne 'part of sun, sunbeam';
  • saarasgýl 'solar fire';
  • saaranú 'solar eye';

Tree for pul 'water' (derived nouns)

  • pulrá 'aquarius';
  • pulus' pool';
  • pultsá 'bucket';
  • pulásse 'watery substantion';
  • púlma 'alcohol';
  • pulní 'vodka';
  • púlaab 'big water';
  • maapúl 'all water';
  • púlasti 'water animal';
  • pépul 'pure water';
  • pulíne 'drop of water';
  • pultón 'many waters';

niedziela, 14 kwietnia 2019

Verb ioh 'to have'

Verb ioh ('to have') is modal verb which have two roles in clauses; as combination with past tense it means a future-in-past tense, and as combination with present and future tenses it means a permissive-obligative construction.

Future-in-past


Tu caánam-na háicha ion játah.
[thou house-ACC-to yesterday MASC-have-PST go-PERF-INF]
[tu cáːnam na kájcʰa jon ɟátah]
You were to go home yesterday.

Han ion tálteh leénaḥ.
[3.SG MASC-have-PST fight-INF long-LOC]
[han jon tálteh léːnax]
He had to fight a long time ago.

Ia dzála seram tháram dundarár iion gúttah.
[this.here woman REFL.PRON-ACC hand-ACC warrior-DAT FEM-have-PST give-PERF-INF]
[ja d͡zála seram tʰáram dundarár ijon gúttah]
This woman was to give her hand to the warrior.

Ia khoi dundarád baión selda tálteh.
[this.here two warrior-PL MASC.PL-have-PST RECIPR.PRON fight-INF]
[ja kʰoj dundarád bajón selda tálteh]
These two warriors were to fight each other.

Bótso patrár ion lúgadlatah.
[wolf hunter-DAT MASC-have-PST die-PASS.CAUS-PERF-INF]
[bót͡so patrár jon lúgad͡ɮatah]
The wolf was to be killed by a hunter.

Patrád bótsom baión lúdlatah.
[Hunter-PL wolf-ACC MASC.PL-have-PST die-CAUS-PERF-INF]
[patrád bót͡som bajón lúd͡ɮatah]
The hunter was to kill the wolf.

Łeékha ham thámem ion ióḥliih.
[dog yonder-ACC man-ACC MASC-have-PST look-for-INF]
[ɬéːkʰa ham tʰámem jon jóxliːh]
The dog was to look for that man.

Permissive-Obligative


Naánga dẓúigum keetúmi-ṣem io ióḥliih.
[king enemy-ACC country-INSTR-through MASC-have look-for-INF]
[náːŋa d͡ʒújgum keːtúm ʃem jo jóxliːh]
The king is to look for an enemy throughout the country.

Tu ar tura báṣat baió tálteh.
[2.SG and 2.SG-POSS brother MASC.PL-have fight-INF]
[tu ar tura báʃat bajó tálteh]
You and your brother are going to fight.

Thámed tortsorám baió uaárah sútshah.
[man-PL leader-ACC MASC.PL-have want.TEL-INF hear-INF]
[tʰámed tort͡sorám bajó wáːrah sút͡sʰah]
People are supposed to listen to the leader.

Dundará dundátam-so io tálteh.
[warrior war-ACC-in MASC-have fight-INF]
[dundará dundátam so jo tálteh]
The warrior is supposed to fight in the war.

Dzála caánaḥ-so iió kádẓih.
[woman house-LOC-in FEM-have work-INF]
[d͡zála cánax so ijó kád͡ʒih]
The woman has to work at home.

Dzálad jiináiḥ-khaa raió jah kádẓih.
[woman-PL cow-LOC-near FEM.PL-have go-INF work-INF]
[d͡zálad ɟiːná.ix kʰaː rajó ɟah kád͡ʒih]
Women are to go to work at cows.

Naángas béstse nekái iió gónah.
[king-GEN wife nothing FEM-have do-INF]
[náŋas bést͡se nekaj ijó gónah]
The king's wife has nothing to do.