czwartek, 5 września 2019

New conlang: Pegrese

Pegrese is a constructed language which is combination of features from various natural languages (Persian - Greek - Vietnamese).

/work in progress/


Consonants (Modern Greek)

IPA Spelling
/p t k/ p t k
/b d g/ b d g
/f θ s x/ f θ s h
/v đ z ɣ/ v đ z j
/m n/ m n
/r l/ r l

Vowels (Persian)

IPA Spelling
/i u/ i u
/e̞ o̞/ e o
/æ ɒ/ a ā

Phonotactics (Vietnamese)


C = any consonant
S = /r l m n/
V = any vowel

Accent (Hungarian)

Stress accent on first syllable.


Demonstrative particles (Tamil ~ Arabic)

Definite proper as- as-Turuk this Turk as-mokke this stone
Definite distant at- at-Turuk that Turk at-mokke that stone
Indefinite an- an-Turuk a Turk an-mokke a stone

Case, number, animacy (Basque ~ Russian)

Animate declension

Singular Plural
1. Absolutive - Turuk Turk -i Turuki Turks
2. Ergative -os Turukos Turk Turukā Turks
3. Dative -om Turukom to / for Turk -e Turuke to / for Turks
4. Possessive -u Turuku of Turk, Turk's -es Turukes of Turks
5. Genitive -a Turuka through / as / like Turk -āh Turukāh through / as / like Turks
6. Ablative -a Turuka from Turk -āt Turukāt from Turks
7. Instrumental -om Turukom with / by Turk -em Turukem with / by Turks
8. Locative -is Turukis in / on Turk -e Turuke in / on Turks

Inanimate declension

Singular Plural
1. Absolutive - bulat ax -a bulata axes
2. Ergative - bulat ax -a bulata axes
3. Dative -om bulatom to / for ax -am bulatam to / for axes
4. Possessive -u bulatu of ax -o bulato of axes
5. Genitive -u bulatu through / as / like ax -o bulato through / as / like axes
6. Ablative -a bulata from ax -āt bulatāt from axes
7. Instrumental -is bulatom with / by ax -em bulatam with / by axes
8. Locative -is bulatis in / on ax bulatā in / on axes

Intrusive -r-

Intrusive -r- is inserted between root/stem ended on vowel and the declensional endings.


Voice (Proto-Indo-European)

Active - sep- to speak
Medial -eh- sepeh- is said to be

Tense-Aspect (Swedish ~ Turkish)

Past Non-past
Imperfective -(a)l- sepal to speak (action was not performed) - sep to speak
Habitual -(a)lva sepalva to speak regularly (in past) -(ā)va sepāva to speak regularly
Perfective -(a)lta sepalta to speak (action was performed) - - -

Masdar (Arabic ~ Proto-Slavic)

  • -(a)ne sepane 'speaking, to speak'

Adjectives (Mongolian)

In role of true adjectives are occuring nouns.

Adverbs (Mongolian)

Adverbs are created from nouns and verbs with special ending -o.


Cardinal Ordinal Multiple Multiplicative
1. votan votse votampe votande
2. krā krahse krahempe krahande
3. θala θalase θalampe θalande
4. sātrā sātrase sātrampe sātrande
5. sinta sintase sintampe sintande
6. massa

7. sorten

8. kassen

9. tahren

10. samhen

11. votasaf

20. krāsamhen

21. krāsamhen votan

100. saffe

101. saffe votan

110. saffe samhen

111. saffe votasaf

120. saffe krāsamhen

121. saffe krāsamhen votan

200. krāsaffe

1.000. harran

10.000. samhen harran

100.000. saffe harran

1.000.000. marraven


Personal pronouns (Persian)

Singular Plural
1. man
2. tun sumā
3. ān (animate)
ves (inanimate)
ānnā (animate)
isān (inanimate)

Possessive pronouns (Luwian)

 Personal pronoun + -(e)s-

Correlative pronouns

Definite proper demonstrative

Place             sakko  'here'
Source             atsakko  'from here'
Purpose direction  tasakko  'to here'
Path               samek  'this way'
Time               sampa  'now'
Method             sarva     'in this way'
Quantity           sasta   'so much'
Qualify            sajam    'like this here'
Reason             sakora   'for this reason'

Definite distant demonstrative

Place              takko   'there'
Source           attakko   'from there'
Purpose direction  tatakko  'to there, so far'
Path               tamek  'that way'
Time               tampa  'then'
Method             tarva    'in that way'
Qualify            tasta    'like that'
Reason             takora  'for that reason'

Indefinite demonstrative

Place              nakko   'somewhere'
Source             atnakko  'from somewhere'
Purpose direction  tanakko  'to somewhere'
Path               namek  'some way'
Method             narva    'in some way'
Qualify            najam    'like something'
Reason             nakora   'for some reason'

Interrogative / Relative

Human being                          ka      'who ? which ?'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  vo      'what ? which ?'
Place                                  kakko    'where ?'
Source                               atkakko  'whence ?'
Purpose direction                    takakko  'whither ?'
Path                                 kamek  'which way ?'
Time                                 kampa  'when ?'
Method                               karva     'how ?'
Quantity                             kasta    'how much ?'
Qualify                              kajam    'which one ?'
Reason                               kakora   'why ?'


Human being                          kasi      'someone'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  vosi      'something'
Place                                kasikko    'somewhere'
Source                               atkasikko  'from somewhere'
Purpose direction                    takasikko  'to somewhere'
Path                                 kasimek   'via some way'
Time                                 kasimpa   'once'
Method                               kasirva     'somehow'
Quantity                             kasista    'somehow much'
Qualify                              kasijam    'some'


Human being                          mukasir      'anyone'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  muvosir       'anything'
Place                                mukasikkor    'anywhere'
Source                               atmukasikkor  'from anywhere'
Purpose direction                    tamukasikkor  'to anywhere'
Path                                 mukasimekar   'via any way'
Time                                 mukasimpar   'ever'
Method                               mukasirvar     'anyhow'
Quantity                             mukasistar    'anyhow much'
Qualify                              mukasijamar    'any'


Human being                          neka 'nobody'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  nevo      'nothing'
Place                                nekakko    'nowhere'
Source                               atnekakko  'from nowhere'
Purpose direction                    tanekakko  'to nowhere'
Path                                 nekamek  'no way'
Time                                 nekampa  'never'
Method                               nekarva     'nohow'
Quantity                             nekasta    'nothing'
Qualify                              nekajam   'neuter, indistinct'


Human being                          kaθa    'every'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  voθa      'every, all'
Place                                kaθakko    'everywhere'
Source                               atkaθakko  'from everywhere'
Purpose direction                    takaθakko  'to everywhere'
Path                                 kaθamek  'through all ways'
Time                                 kaθampa  'always'
Method                               kaθarva     'in all methods'
Quantity                             kaθasta    'otherwise than so many'
Qualify                              kaθajam    'any'


Human being                          karam      'anyone else'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  voram      'anything else'
Place                                karamakko    'elswhere'
Source                               atkaramakko  'from elswhere'
Purpose direction                 takaramakko     'to elswhere'
Path                                 karammek  'which way else'
Time                                karamampa  'when else'
Method                               karamarva     'otherwise'
Qualify                              karamjam       'other'

Reflexive, Reciprocal and Cooperative pronouns

Reflexive    ka (-)self
Reciprocal   kahha each other
Cooperative uka together

kas- reflexive possessive pronoun


according toudoroh
 because ofvata


/work in progress/

czwartek, 25 kwietnia 2019

Some derivative trees, part V.

Tree for verb naághdaah 'to remember' (derived nouns)

  • naaghdaát 'memory'
  • naaghdatsá 'memorials, diary book';
  • naaghdama 'memorial, monument';

Tree for noun tsíłi 'blood' (derived nouns)

  • tsiłirá 'blood relative';
    • tsiłiraát 'blood relation';
  • tsíłius 'blood place';
  • tsiłitsá 'vein';
  • maatsíłi 'all/entire blood';
  • tsíłisti 'living being with blood';
  • tsétsiłi 'true/pure blood';
  • tsíłite 'something similar to blood';
  • tsiłíne 'drop of blood';

Tree for noun bági 'wheel' (derived nouns)

  • bagirá 'wheeler';
  • bagiián 'possessor of a wheel';
  • bágius 'place in the shape of a wheel';
  • baginí 'little wheel';
  • bágiaab 'big wheel';
  • bagitón 'many wheels';
  • maabági 'all/entire wheel';
  • cambági 'former wheel';
  • ieebági 'future wheel';
  • bébagi 'true wheel';
  • bágite 'ellipse';
  • bagiúm 'horizon';
  • bagíne 'part of wheel';
  • ḥaghbági 'semicircle';

Tree for verb maákhah 'to weave' (derived nouns)

  • mákhni 'weaving';
  • makhrá 'weaver';
    • makhraní 'little weaver';
    • makhraáb 'big/great weaver';
  • mákhus 'work's place for weavers';
  • makhé 'silk';
    • mémakhe 'true/natural silk';
    • makhésti 'silkworm';
    • makhéite 'false silk';
    • makhéine 'piece of silk';
  • mákhma 'weaving material';

Tree for noun goon 'river' (derived nouns)

  • goonáua 'someone living near a river';
  • goonní 'little river';
  • goónaab 'big river';
  • goónus 'place near a river, river bank';
  • maagoón 'all/entire river';
  • cangoón 'former river';
  • goónasti 'living being from river';
  • gégoon 'pure river';
  • goonúm 'river basin';
  • gooníne 'part of river, some water from river';
  • goónni 'riverbed';
  • goombecúm 'area between rivers';

Tree for noun hariín 'sea' (derived nouns)

  • hariinrá 'seaman';
  • hariínaab 'big sea, ocean';
  • hariinní 'little sea';
  • hariínasse 'sea water';
  • hariiné 'sea salt';
  • maahariín 'all/entire sea';
  • héhariin 'true/pure sea';
  • hariiníne 'part of sea';

Tree for noun deené 'god, deity' (derived nouns)

  • deénḥati 'piety';
  • deenásse 'god element';
  • deenetón 'pantheon';
  • Dédeene 'true god';
  • deenéite 'someone similar to deity, with power similar to god';
  • deenús 'place of god';
  • deenúm 'holy area';
  • deenéine 'part of god';

Tree for noun dzála 'woman' (derived nouns)

  • dzalaián 'husband';
  • dzálaab 'big woman';
  • dzalaní 'little woman';
  • dzálus 'place for women';
  • dzalatón 'many women';
  • candzála 'former woman';
  • ieedzála 'future woman';
  • dzédzala 'true/pure woman';
  • dzálaite 'man similar to a woman';
  • dzaláine 'part of woman';

Tree for verb tsítse 'cat' (derived nouns)

  • tsitserá 'cat's breeder';
  • tsitsián 'possessor of cat';
  • tsítsus 'place of cat';
  • tsitsení 'little cat';
  • tsítseeb 'big cat';
  • tsitsetón 'many cats';
  • tsétsitse 'true cat';
  • tsítseite 'felid';
    • tsétsitseite 'true felid';
  • tsitséine 'part of cat';

Tree for noun tortsó 'head' (derived nouns)

  • tortsorá 'head, leader';
  • tortsoé 'cap, pommel';
  • tortsoní 'little head';
  • tortsoób 'big head';
  • tortsotón 'many heads, population';
  • maatortsó 'all/entire head';
  • cantortsó 'former head';
  • tétortso 'true head';
  • tortsóite 'something similar to head';
  • tortsúm 'main area';
  • tortsóine 'part of head';
  • tortsósoma 'inside of head';
  • tortsóḥa 'hedgear';
  • tortsóni 'pillow';

Tree for noun bótso 'wolf' (derived nouns)

  • botsorá 'wolf hunter';
  • botsoián 'someone who have a wolf';
  • botsoní 'little wolf';
  • bótsaab 'big wolf';
  • bótsoma 'wolf skin';
  • botsolúa 'few wolves';
  • bótsus 'seat of wolves';
  • bébotso 'true wolf';
  • bótsoite 'werewolf';
  • botsúm 'territory of wolves';
  • botsóine 'part of wolf';

Tree for noun tṣaám 'bear' (derived nouns)

  • tṣaamrá 'bear hunter';
  • tṣamián 'possessor of bear';
  • tṣaámma 'bear skin';
  • tṣaámus 'place where bear sleeps';
  • tṣaamní 'little bear';
  • tṣaámaab 'big bear';
  • tṣaamtón 'many bears';
  • maatṣaám 'all/entire bear';
  • tṣaámite 'werebear';
  • tṣétṣaam 'true bear';
  • tṣaamúm 'territory of bear';
  • tṣaamíne 'part of bear';

Tree for noun haát 'father' (derived nouns)

  • haatalé 'wealth of father';
  • haátti 'paternity';
  • haatní 'little father';
  • haattón 'many fathers, father lineage';
  • haatłúa 'few fathers';
  • canhaát 'male ancestor';
    • canhaátus 'seat of male ancestor';
  • ieehaát 'future father';
  • haatúm 'fatherland';

Tree for noun tólgu 'stone' (derived nouns)

  • tolgurá 'stonemason';
  • tólguub 'big stone';
  • tolguní 'little stone';
  • tolgutón 'many stones';
  • tolgulúa 'few stones';
  • maatólgu 'all/entire stone';
  • tétolgu 'true stone';
  • tólguite 'something similar to stone';
  • tolgúm 'stone area';
  • tolgúine 'one stone';

Tree for noun tsidú 'tree' (derived nouns)

  • tsidurá 'lumberman';
  • tsiduián 'forest guardian';
  • tsiduús 'place on tree, nest';
  • tsiduní 'little tree';
  • tsiduúb 'big tree';
  • tsidué 'wood';
    • tsiduení 'little wood';
    • tsiduúb 'big wood';
    • tsiduéine 'piece of wood';
  • tsidutón 'many trees';
  • maatsidú 'entire tree';
  • tsidúite 'something similar to a tree';
  • tsidúm 'forest, park';
  • tsidúine 'part/piece of tree';

Tree for verb tétseh 'to become sharp' (derived nouns)

  • tetselé 'sharpness';
  • tetsé 'sharp object, edge';
  • tétsema 'cutting edge';

poniedziałek, 22 kwietnia 2019


This language uses its own alphabetical writing, written from left to right.

 Chart with International Phonetic alphabet.
Lord's Prayer.

niedziela, 21 kwietnia 2019

Some derivative trees, part IV.

Tree for noun caán 'house, home, family' (derived nouns)

  • caanrá 'inmate';
  • caanián 'house master, pater familias';
  • caánus 'home place';
  • caantsá 'house';
  • caanní 'little house, little family';
  • caánaab 'big house, big family';
  • caantón 'many houses, many families';
  • maacaán 'all/entire house or family';
  • cancaán 'former house, ruine';
  • ieecaán 'future house';
  • caánasti 'domestic animal';
  • caánite 'group similar to family, but with unrelated members';
  • caanúm 'area with houses, estate';
  • caaníne 'part of house, chamber';

Tree for noun dákha 'edge' (derived nouns)

  • dákhus 'edge of a place';
  • dakhaní 'little edge';
  • dákhaab 'big edge';
  • maadákha 'all/entire edge';
  • candákha 'former edge';
  • ieedákha 'future edge';
  • dakhúm 'border';
    • dakhumní 'little border';
    • dakhúmaab 'big border';
    • maadakhúm 'all/entire border';
    • dakhumíne 'part of border';
    • candakhúm 'former border';
    • ieedakhúm 'future border';
  • dakháine 'part of edge';

Tree for noun bóste 'ring' (derived nouns)

  • bosterá 'someone who makes rings';
  • bostiián 'possessor of ring';
  • bóstus 'ring, circle (as a place)'
  • bostetsá 'box for rings';
  • bóstasti 'annelid';
  • bóstite 'object in the shape of ring';
  • bostení 'little ring';
  • bóstaab 'big ring';
  • bostetón 'many rings';
  • maabóste 'all/entire ring';
  • béboste 'true ring';
  • bostúm 'land of rings';
  • bostíne 'part of ring';

Tree for noun hatsé 'bone' (derived nouns)

  • hatséus 'place of bones';
  • hatsení 'little bone';
  • hatseéb 'big bone';
  • hatsetón 'skeleton';
  • hatselúa 'few bones';
  • maahatsé 'entire bone';
  • hatseúm 'cemetary';
  • hatséine 'piece of bone';

Tree for noun thar 'hand' (derived nouns)

  • thárma 'glove';
  • thartaamé 'sparing';
  • thárnima 'towel';
  • tharní 'little hand';
  • tháraab 'big hand';
  • thartón 'many hands';
  • maathár 'all/entire hand';
  • tharíne 'part of hand';

Tree for noun saadé 'star' (derived nouns)

  • saadé 'star';
  • saaderá 'astrologer';
  • saadení 'little star';
  • saadeéb 'big star';
  • saadetón 'night sky';
  • saadelúa 'constellation';
  • saadétṣa 'meteorite';

Tree for noun suúr 'milk' (derived nouns)

  • surrá 'milkman';
  • suurní 'little milk, little portion of milk';
  • suúraab 'big milk';
  • suúrus 'place with milk';
  • suurtsá 'container for milk';
  • suúrma 'milk soup';
  • maasuúr 'all, entire milk';
  • sésuur 'pure milk';
  • suúrite 'something similar to milk';
  • suurúm 'land of milk';
  • suuríne 'portion of milk';

Tree for verb lókoh 'to become high' (derived nouns)

  • lokalé 'height';
  • lokián 'high person';
  • lokáua 'someone from High Tribe';
  • lókus 'high place';
  • lokúm 'highland';

Tree for verb sétah 'to stand' (derived nouns)

  • sétti 'state, status';
  • sétus 'layover';
  • sétta 'wealth';
    • settaní 'little wealth';
    • séttaab 'big wealth';
    • sésetta 'true wealth';
  • sédgata 'stability';
    • sedgatúm 'stabilized area';
    • sésedgata 'true stability';
  • sédlata 'localization';

środa, 17 kwietnia 2019

Some derivative trees, part III.

Tree for verb gúdah 'to give' (derived nouns)

  • gudrá 'giver';
    • gudralé 'donation';
  • gúdma 'gift';
    • gudmaní 'little gift';
    • gúdmaab 'big gift';
    • gégudma 'true gift';
    • gúdmaite 'false gift';
    • cangúdma 'former gift';
    • ieegúdma 'future gift;
    • gudmatón 'many gifts';
  • gútta 'portion';
    • guttáine 'part of portion';
  • gútti 'loyalty';
  • gúdus 'giving place';
  • gútkhama 'increase';
  • gúttaamni 'forgiving';
  • gúnnani 'adding';
    • gúnnima 'tax';
      • gúnnimaini 'taxation';
      • gunnimáine 'part of tax';
    • gunné 'add';
      • gunnéine 'part of add';
  • gútṣtṣani 'giving back, retturning, emission';
    • gutṣtṣásse 'emitted substantion';
  • gúdliini 'spending, issuing';
    • gúdliima 'issue';
  • guthamé 'reward, prize';
    • guthameéb 'grand prize';
    • guthamení 'little prize';
    • guthaméine 'part of prize';
  • gútsoma 'image, imitation';
  • gútsomaini 'imagination';
    • gutsomairá 'imaginator';

Tree for verb bóḥah 'to speak' (derived nouns)

  • boḥrá 'speaker';
  • boḥát 'speech';
  • bóḥasti 'speaking being';
  • bóḥus 'rostrum';
  • boḥé 'thing';
    • boḥeéb 'large thing';
    • boḥení 'little thing';
    • bóḥḥa 'subject';
  • boḥtaamé 'refusal, denial, rejection';
  • boḥásse 'sentence';
    • boḥassetón 'many sentences, statement';
  • bóḥṣemní 'orating';
    • boḥṣemrá 'orator';
    • boḥṣemé 'oration';
  • bóḥłani 'dictating';
    • bohłará 'dictator';
  • boḥtaamé 'pronounciation';
  • bóḥsoma 'collusion, conspiracy';
  • bóḥḥama 'pact, contract';
  • bóḥliima 'persuasion, incitement, instigation';
  • bóhnima 'slander, libel, rumor'

Tree for verb sýdzah 'to sit' (derived nouns)

  • sýdzus 'seat';
  • sytṣtṣemé 'transfer';
  • sýtskhaama 'sitting, meeting';
  • sýdlus 'orchard';
    • sydlusián 'orchardman';
  • sýdlasti 'seedling';

Tree for verb raájah 'to rule' (derived nouns)

  • raajrá 'ruler';
    • raajráiti 'imperiousness';
  • raajián 'someone who has ruling power, administrator';
  • raájus 'seat of rule, capital';
  • raajúm 'ruled area';
  • raájnisoma 'embassy';
    • raajnisomará 'ambassador';
  • raachará 'magnate';
    • raacharatón 'magnatery, ruling class';
  • raájni 'subordinated object';
    • raajnirá 'subordinated person';
      • raajniralé 'subordination';

Tree for verb łaáiah 'to become white' (derived nouns)

  • łaáiián 'someone who is white, albino';
  • łaáiti 'whiteness';
  • łaáima 'leucoma';
  • łaaié 'glair';
  • łaáiasti 'white animal';
  • łaáius 'white place';
  • łaaiúm 'white area, snow/ice cap';

Tree for verb goh 'to do' (derived nouns)

  • gorá 'worker';
    • goratón 'many workers';
  • góti 'job';
  • góku 'tool';
    • gokúine 'part of tool';
  • góta 'occupation';
  • gósti 'working animal';
  • gónima 'fake, counterfeit, imitation';
    • gonimará 'imitator';
  • gótaamni 'cancellation';
  • goṣemé 'redoing, redo';
  • gothani 'earnings, profit';
  • gółni 'causing, preaching';
    • gółra 'causee, preacher';
    • gółti 'cause';
    • gółḥama 'injunction';

Tree for verb baághah 'to fence' (derived nouns)

  • baaghrá 'fencer';
  • baaghé 'fence';
    • baagheéb 'big fence';
    • baaghení 'little fence';
    • baaghéine 'part of fence, board';
  • baághus 'garden';
  • baaghúm 'city, town';
    • baaghumáua 'burgher, townsman, citizen';
  • baaghṣemé 'partition, compartment';
    • baághṣemus 'partitionned place';

Tree for verb doh 'to see' (derived nouns)

  • dónima 'vision';
    • dónimaab 'great vision';
    • donimaní 'little vision, delusion';
  • dorá 'spectator';
    • doratón 'audience, locale';
  • doát 'view';
    • doattón 'scene';
  • dóus 'view, scenery';
    • dóusaab 'large view';
    • dousní 'little view';
  • dokhaará 'breeder, farmer';
  • dołát 'show, display';
    • dołé 'shown object';

Tree for noun anú 'eye' (derived nouns)

  • anurá 'representative';
    • anuratón 'representation';
      • anuratonní 'little representation';
  • anuián 'someone with big eyes';
  • anuní 'little eye';
  • anuúb 'big eye';
  • anúnius 'eyehole, orbit';
  • anúḥa 'eyelid';

Tree for noun sýle 'mountain' (derived nouns)

  • sylerá 'mountaineer';
    • syleratón 'many mountaineers';
  • syláua 'someone living in mountain';
  • sylní /little mountain, hill';
  • sýleeb 'big/grand mountain';
    • syleeptón 'big/grand mountains' range'
  • syltón 'many mountains, mountain range';
  • syllúa 'few mountains';
  • syleniúm 'area before mountains';
  • syltahé 'hill';
  • sylbecúm 'area between mountains, mountain hollow';

Tree for noun syn 'forest' (derived nouns)

  • synrá 'forester';
  • synáua 'someone living in forest';
  • sýmma 'wood';
  • symní 'little forest';
  • sýnaab 'big forest';
  • synlúa 'few forests';
  • symnisúm 'area near forest';
  • symbecúm 'area between forests';

Tree for noun tshúue 'bird' (derived nouns)

  • tshuurá 'fowler';
  • tshuuián 'possessor of a bird';
  • tshuuní 'little bird';
  • tshúuaab 'big bird';
  • tshuutón 'large troop of birds';
    • maatshuutón 'all birds, birds of all species'
  • tshuulúa 'few birds';
  • tshuus 'aviary';
  • tshuutsá 'birdcage';

Tree for noun naánga 'king' (derived nouns)

  • naángus 'royal house/palace';
  • naángatón 'many kings, royal lineage';
  • ieenaánga 'future king';
  • naángakhaan 'son of king';
  • naángatṣaal 'daughter of king';
  • naangúm 'kingdom';
  • naángani 'subking, viceroy';
  • naangaáke 'someone in role of king (but it is not a true king)';
  • naanganalé 'absence of leadership, interregnum';
  • naanganákhaa 'anti-king';